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In observations collected since October 2020, Unit 42 researchers have found that malware authors have been leveraging njRAT (also known as Bladabindi), a Remote Access Trojan, to download and deliver second-stage payloads from Pastebin, a popular website that is well-known to be used to store data anonymously. Attackers are taking advantage of this service to post malicious data that can be accessed by malware through a shortened URL, thus allowing them to avoid the use of their own command and control (C2) infrastructure and therefore increasing the possibility of operating unnoticed.
In this blog, we will introduce different scenarios and data transformations that we have found in the wild, and describe the relationship between the downloader component and its second-stage malware.
Active Pastebin C2 Tunnel
Pastebin's C2 tunnel is actively used by attackers as a hosting service for malicious payloads that can be downloaded by keyloggers, backdoors or Trojans.
The hosted data differs in its form and shape. The different data encodings and transformations that can be found include traditional base64 encoding, hexadecimal and JSON data, compressed blobs, and plain-text data with embedded malicious URLs. It is believed that this use of Pastebin is intended to evade detection by security products.
In the following sections, we will introduce different scenarios and data transformations that we have found in the wild, and describe the relationship between the downloader component and its second-stage malware.
Source URL: hxxps://pastebin[.]com/raw/VbSn9AnN
The downloader (91f4b53cc4fc22c636406f527e3dca3f10aea7cc0d7a9ee955c9631c80d9777f) requests Pastebin C2 data and uses the less evasive version of stored data, which corresponds to traditional base64 encoding.
|base64: Encoded data||base64: Decoded / Binary dumped|
Figure 1. base64 encoded data and its transformation to an executable file.
Once decoded, the final payload is revealed as a 32-bit .NET executable, which makes use of several Windows API functions including GetKeyboardState(), GetAsynckeyState(), MapVirtualKey(), etc. These are commonly used by keyloggers and Trojans, as well as by functions used to potentially exfiltrate user data. It is also worth noting that the downloader and second-stage executables are similar in their functionality and code.
The following image presents a screen capture of the decompiled code of the second-stage sample.
Second-Stage Malware Dropped by base64 Encoding Reverse Evasion
Source URL: hxxps://pastebin[.]com/raw/JMkdgr4h
In this version, the base64 data was reversed, presumably as a measure to avoid detection for automated systems.
|Reversed base64 string||Transformed base64 data|
Figure 3. base64 encoded reversed string and its transformation to base64 format.
After proper transformation and decoding of data, the final second-stage 32-bit .NET executable was found to be a similar sample, which exhibits keylogging and Trojan capabilities as well. Three data transformation layers were required to get the final payload.
Source URL: hxxps://pastebin[.]com/raw/LKRwaias
In this version, the base64 data was presented in hex characters.
|Hex encoded string||Hex decoded and encoded base64 data|
Figure 4. Hex encoded string and its transformation to base64 format.
After proper decoding of Hex and base64 data, the dumped program is also a 32-bit.NET executable file sharing the same malicious characteristics as the previous example.
Source URL: hxxp://pastebin[.]com/raw/zHLUaPvW
This 32-bit .NET launcher sample, unlike the others, works with compressed data fetched from Pastebin.
The downloader performs the following actions:
- The base64 encoded and compressed data is downloaded by the execution of the DownloadString() function by passing as an argument, a string that was generated by the concatenation of the variables str, str2, str3 and str4 that form the target URL.
- The base64 and compressed data are now decoded by the FromBase64String() function and decompressed by the DecompressGZip() function. The result is an executable file stored in a byte array in the rawAssembly variable.
- Finally, a call to the Load().EntryPoint.Invoke() function is made by passing the rawAssembly variable to the executable file in memory in order to position itself within the system and release the malicious payload.
The following picture shows the decompressed 32-bit .NET executable data residing in memory before its execution.
Source URL: hxxp://pastebin[.]com/raw/ZFchNrpH
This .NET downloader uses the traditional method of grabbing an executable file from a remote URL. The target address points to hxxp://textfiles[.]us/driverupdate0.exe.
According to VirusTotal, this malware sample was identified by several vendors as malicious.
Source URL: hxxps://pastebin[.]com/raw/8DEsZn2y
In this version, JSON formatted data was used. One of the key names, “downlodLink” (misspelled on purpose by the malware author), indicates that the value will be a URL, where additional components can be downloaded. No further information was given regarding the objective of this particular file, but it could potentially be used as a configuration file.
Proxy Scraper.exe: e3ea8a206b03d0a49a2601fe210c949a3c008c97e5dbf77968c0d08d2b6c1255
Source URL: hxxps://pastebin[.]com/rw/770qPDMt
This malware parses the HTML page in order to get the link to prepare for further attacks. For this particular sample, Pastebin data is used to provide links for software downloads.
The download link points to a compressed file called Simple+Scraper.zip containing two files: MaterialSkin.dll and Proxy Scraper.exe. By statically inspecting the code using .NET Decompiler software, we found that the downloader malware uses Pastebin as a repository to host links to updates related to the Proxy Scraper software.
The downloader version (“v2.0”) is shown at code level, but the second-stage malware code doesn’t indicate a version. However, based on VirusTotal information, the executable file has been submitted under different names, including “Lithium proxy scraper v2.6”.
The Pastebin C2 tunnel is still alive and being used by njRAT to deliver malicious payloads by downloading data hosted in Pastebin, allowing this and other malware families in the wild to take advantage of paste-based public services. Based on our research, malware authors are interested in hosting their second-stage payloads in Pastebin and encrypting or obfuscating such data as a measure to evade security solutions. There is a possibility that malware authors will use services like Pastebin for the long term.
At the time of this writing, the following samples were not publicly available. However, we have created all the required coverage against their behavior and communication.
Palo Alto Networks customers are protected from this kind of attack by the following:
- Threat Prevention signatures 21010, 21005, 21075 and 21077 identify HTTP Pastebin requests attempting to download malicious components.
- WildFire and Cortex XDR identify and block njRAT and its droppers.