Mirai Variant ECHOBOT Resurfaces with 13 Previously Unexploited Vulnerabilities

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Category: Unit 42

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This post is also available in: 日本語 (Japanese)

Executive Summary

Since the discovery of the Mirai variant using the binary name ECHOBOT in May 2019, it has resurfaced from time to time, using new infrastructure, and more remarkably, adding to the list of vulnerabilities it scans for, as a means to increase its attack surface with each evolution.

Unlike other Mirai variants, this particular variant stands out for the sheer number of exploits it incorporates, with the latest version having a total of 71 unique exploits, 13 of which haven’t been seen exploited in the wild until now, ranging from extremely old CVEs from as long back as 2003, to recent vulnerabilities made public as recently as early December 2019. Based on this seemingly odd choice, one could risk a guess that the attackers could potentially be aiming for the sweet spots of IoT vulnerabilities, targeting either legacy devices that are still in use but probably too old to update due to compatibility issues and newer vulnerabilities that are too recent for owners to have patched.

The newly incorporated exploits target a range of devices from the usually expected routers, firewalls, IP cameras and server management utilities, to more rarely seen targets like a PLC, an online payment system and even a yacht control web application.

This version first surfaced on October 28th, 2019 for a couple of hours, after which it was taken down. It then resurfaced on the 3rd of December, switching payload IPs and finally adding 2 more exploits that weren’t in the samples from October. While details on this version were recently published, this post shares CVE numbers (where available) for the vulnerabilities targeted, as well as IOCs for this version I have been tracking since October.

The following section also explains the discrepancy in the exploit count used here in comparison to other publications.

Exploits

This latest variant contains a total of 71 unique exploits, 13 of these vulnerabilities haven’t been previously seen exploited in the wild prior to this version. Exploits targeting the same vulnerability in different devices (potentially sharing firmware) or targeting different ports have been grouped together.

The exploits that are new to this version, and any previously seen Mirai variant for that matter, are listed in Table 1 below:

Vulnerability Affected Devices Port Scanned Exploit Format
CVE-2019-17270 Yachtcontrol Webservers 8081
CVE-2019-18396 / CVE-2017-14127 Technicolor TD5130v2 and Technicolor TD5336 routers. 161
AVCON6 Remote Code Execution AVCON6 video conferencing systems 8080
CVE-2019-16072 Enigma Network Management Systems v65.0.0 80
CVE-2019-14931 Mitsubishi Electric smartRTU & INEA ME-RTU 80
Sar2HTML Remote Code Execution Sar2HTML plotting tool for Linux servers, v3.2.1 80
CVE-2017-16602 NetGain Systems Enterprise Manager 8081
CVE-2017-6316 Citrix NetScaler SD-WAN 9.1.2.26.561201 devices 443
CVE-2013-5912 Thomson Reuters Velocity Analytics Vhayu Analytic Servers 6.94 build 2995 80
ACTi ASOC2200 Remote Code Execution ACTi ASOC 2200 Web Configurators versions 2.6 and prior. 80
3Com Office Connect Remote Code Execution 3Com OfficeConnect routers 80
CVE-2006-4000 Barracuda Spam Firewall versions 3.3.x 80
CCBill Remote Code Execution CCBill Online Payment Systems 80

Table 1 Previously unexploited vulnerabilities in latest ECHOBOT version

Other exploits included in this version are listed in the Appendix.

Other Technical Details

Like its predecessors, this version of ECHOBOT also makes use of the key 0xDFDAACFD for XOR encryption of its strings.

The new default credentials brute forced by this variant are listed below :

  • root/trendimsa1.0
  • admin/fritzfonbox
  • r00t/boza
  • root/welc0me
  • admin/welc0me
  • root/bagabu
  • welc0me/
  • unknown/
  • UNKNOWN/

Infrastructure

This version first surfaced on 28th October 2019 for a couple of hours, after which it was taken down. It then resurfaced on the 3rd of December, switching payload IPs and finally adding 2 more exploits that weren’t in the samples from October. Figure 1 shows the dropper script that was live at the IP 145.249.106[.]241 until the 12th of December.

Figure 1. Dropper script

Prior to this, samples of this version were briefly hosted at :

  • 45.89.106[.]108 on 2019-10-28
  • 80.82.67[.]184 on 2019-12-03
  • 80.82.67[.]209 on 2019-12-04
  • 145.249.106[.]241 on and after 2019-11-12

It makes use of the same domains for Command and Control as its predecessors.

IOCs for all activity mentioned in this post can be found at the Unit42 github.

Conclusion

The Mirai variant ECHOBOT differentiates itself from concurrent variants by the sheer volume of vulnerabilities targeted, as opposed to other variants that stick to certain vulnerabilities that have proven effective over time.

The exploits unique to this new version target vulnerabilities ranging from extremely old CVEs from as long back as 2003, to ones made public as recently as early December 2019. This choice of exploits could possibly imply its authors are targeting either legacy devices that are still in use but probably too old to update due to compatibility issues and newer vulnerabilities that are too recent for owners to have patched. We are unable to speculate at this point in time on the overall effectiveness of their approach – be it the use of a large number of exploits, or the choice of the exploits themselves.

Palo Alto Networks customers are protected by:

  • WildFire which detects all related samples with malicious verdicts
  • Threat Prevention and PANDB that block all exploits and IPs/URLs used by this variant.

AutoFocus customers can track these activities using individual exploit tags:

The malware family can be tracked in AutoFocus using the tag Mirai

Appendix

Other exploits embedded in this ECHOBOT version are listed below:

Vulnerability Function name in unstripped binaries Port(s) Scanned
CVE-2019-15107 webmin_init 10000
CVE-2014-8361 realtekscan,

dlinkscan

52869,

49152

FritzBox Command Injection fritzboxscan 80
CVE-2019-12989, CVE-2019-12991 citrix_init 80
Xfinity Gateway Remote Code Execution xfinityscan 80
Beward N100 Remote Code Execution bewardscan 80
FLIR Thermal Camera Command Injection thermalscan 80
EyeLock nano NXT Remote Code Execution nxtscan 11000
IrisAccess ICU Cross-Site Scripting irisscan 80
EnGenius Remote Code Execution cloudscan 9000
Sapido RB-1732 Remote Command Execution sapidoscan 80
CVE-2016-0752 railsscan 3000
CVE-2014-3914 rocketscan 8888
CVE-2015-4051 beckhoffscan 5120
CVE-2015-2208 phpmoadmin 80
CVE-2018-7297 homematicscan 2001
SpreeCommerce Remote Code Execution spreecommercescan 80
Redmine Remote Code Execution redminescan 80
CVE-2003-0050 quicktimescan 1220
CVE-2011-3587 plonescan 80
CVE-2005-2773 openviewscan 2447
Op5Monitor Remote Code Execution op5v7scan 443
CVE-2012-0262 op5scan 443
CVE-2009-2288 nagiosscan 12489
MitelAWC Remote Code Execution mitelscan 80
Gitorious Remote Code Execution gitoriousscan 9418
CVE-2012-4869 freepbxscan 5060
CVE-2011-5010 ctekscan 52869
DogfoodCRM_Remote Code Execution crmscan 8000
CVE-2005-2848 barracudascan 80
CVE-2006-2237 awstatsmigratescan 80
CVE-2005-0116 awstatsconfigdirscan 80
CVE-2008-3922 awstatstotalsscan 80
CVE-2007-3010 telscan 80
ASUSModemRCEs (CVE-2013-5948, CVE-2018-15887) asuswrtscan,

asusscan

80
CVE-2009-0545 zeroshellscan 80
CVE-2013-5758 yealinkscan 52869
CVE-2016-10760 seowonintechscan 80
CVE-2009-5157 linksysscan 80
CVE-2009-2765 ddwrtscan 80
CVE-2010-5330 airosscan 80
CVE-2009-5156 asmaxscan 80
GoAheadRCE wificamscan 80
CVE-2017-5174 geutebruckscan 80
CVE-2018-6961 vmwarescan 80
CVE-2018-11510 admscan 8001
OpenDreamBox_RCE dreamboxscan/

dreambox8889scan,

dreambox8880scan,

dreambox10000scan

10000,

8889,

8880,

10000

WePresentCmdInjection wepresentscan 80
CVE-2018-17173 supersignscan 9080
CVE-2019-2725 oraclescan 1234
NetgearReadyNAS_RCE nuuoscan,

netgearscan

50000,

80

CVE-2018-20841 hootooscan 6666
DellKACE_SysMgmtApp_RCE dellscan 80
CVE-2018-7841 umotionscan 80
CVE-2016-6255 veralite_init 49451
CVE-2019-3929 Blackboxscan 80
CVE-2019-12780 belkin_init 49152

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