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In early August, Unit 42 researchers discovered attacks leveraging several vulnerabilities in devices made by D-Link, a company that specializes in network and connectivity products. The vulnerabilities exploited include:
- CVE-2015-2051: D-Link HNAP SOAPAction Header Command Execution Vulnerability
- CVE-2018-6530: D-Link SOAP Interface Remote Code Execution Vulnerability
- CVE-2022-26258: D-Link Remote Command Execution Vulnerability
- CVE-2022-28958: D-Link Remote Command Execution Vulnerability
If the devices are compromised, they will be fully controlled by attackers, who could utilize those devices to conduct further attacks such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. The exploit attempts captured by Unit 42 researchers leverage the aforementioned vulnerabilities to spread MooBot, a Mirai variant, which targets exposed networking devices running Linux.
While D-Link has published security bulletins regarding all the vulnerabilities mentioned here, some users may be running unpatched or older versions or devices. Unit 42 strongly recommends applying upgrades and patches where possible.
Palo Alto Networks Next-Generation Firewall customers receive protections through cloud-delivered security services such as IoT Security, Advanced Threat Prevention, WildFire and Advanced URL Filtering, which can detect and block the exploit traffic and malware.
|Related Unit 42 Topics||IoT, Mirai|
Table of Contents
D-Link Exploit Payloads
Indicators of Compromise
The whole attack process is shown in Figure 1.
Four known vulnerabilities were exploited in this attack. Upon successful exploitation, the wget utility executes to download MooBot samples from the malware infrastructure and then executes the downloaded binaries. Vulnerability-related information is shown in Table 1.
|1||CVE-2015-2051||D-Link HNAP SOAPAction Header Command Execution Vulnerability||CVSS Version 2.0: 10.0 High|
|2||CVE-2018-6530||D-Link SOAP Interface Remote Code Execution Vulnerability||CVSS Version 3.0: 9.8 Critical|
|3||CVE-2022-26258||D-Link Remote Command Execution Vulnerability||CVSS Version 3.0: 9.8 Critical|
|4||CVE-2022-28958||D-Link Remote Command Execution Vulnerability||CVSS Version 3.0: 9.8 Critical|
Table 1. List of exploited vulnerabilities.
D-Link Exploit Payloads
The attacker utilizes four D-Link vulnerabilities that could lead to remote code execution and download a MooBot downloader from host 159.203.15[.]179.
1. CVE-2015-2051: D-Link HNAP SOAPAction Header Command Execution Vulnerability
The exploit targeting the older D-Link routers takes advantage of vulnerabilities in the HNAP SOAP interface. An attacker can perform code execution through a blind OS command injection.
2. CVE-2018-6530: D-Link SOAP Interface Remote Code Execution Vulnerability
The exploit works due to the older D-Link router's unsanitized use of the “service” parameters in requests made to the SOAP interface. The vulnerability can be exploited to allow unauthenticated remote code execution.
3. CVE-2022-26258: D-Link Remote Code Execution Vulnerability
The exploit targets a command injection vulnerability in the /lan.asp component. The component does not successfully sanitize the value of the HTTP parameter DeviceName, which in turn can lead to arbitrary command execution.
4. CVE-2022-28958: D-Link Remote Code Execution Vulnerability
The exploit targets a remote command execution vulnerability in the /shareport.php component. The component does not successfully sanitize the value of the HTTP parameter value, which can lead to arbitrary command execution.
All the artifacts related to this attack are shown in the following table:
|rt||B7EE57A42C6A4545AC6D6C29E1075FA1628E1D09B8C1572C848A70112D4C90A1||A script downloader. It downloads MooBot onto the compromised system and renames the binary files to Realtek.|
|wget[.]sh||46BB6E2F80B6CB96FF7D0F78B3BDBC496B69EB7F22CE15EFCAA275F07CFAE075||The script downloader. It downloads MooBot onto the compromised system, and renames the binary files to Android.|
|arc||36DCAF547C212B6228CA5A45A3F3A778271FBAF8E198EDE305D801BC98893D5A||MooBot executable file.|
|arm||88B858B1411992509B0F2997877402D8BD9E378E4E21EFE024D61E25B29DAA08||MooBot executable file.|
|arm5||D7564C7E6F606EC3A04BE3AC63FDEF2FDE49D3014776C1FB527C3B2E3086EBAB||MooBot executable file.|
|arm6||72153E51EA461452263DBB8F658BDDC8FB82902E538C2F7146C8666192893258||MooBot executable file.|
|arm7||7123B2DE979D85615C35FCA99FA40E0B5FBCA25F2C7654B083808653C9E4D616||MooBot executable file.|
|i586||CC3E92C52BBCF56CCFFB6F6E2942A676B3103F74397C46A21697B7D9C0448BE6||MooBot executable file.|
|i686||188BCE5483A9BDC618E0EE9F3C961FF5356009572738AB703057857E8477A36B||MooBot executable file.|
|mips||4567979788B37FBED6EEDA02B3C15FAFE3E0A226EE541D7A0027C31FF05578E2||MooBot executable file.|
|mipsel||06FC99956BD2AFCEEBBCD157C71908F8CE9DDC81A830CBE86A2A3F4FF79DA5F4||MooBot executable file.|
|sh4||4BFF052C7FBF3F7AD025D7DBAB8BD985B6CAC79381EB3F8616BEF98FCB01D871||MooBot executable file.|
|x86_64||4BFF052C7FBF3F7AD025D7DBAB8BD985B6CAC79381EB3F8616BEF98FCB01D871||MooBot executable file.|
Table 2. Attack-related artifacts.
Unit 42 researchers conducted analysis on the downloaded malware sample. Based on its behavior and patterns, we believe that the malware samples that were hosted on 159.203.15[.]179 relate to a variant of the Mirai botnet called MooBot.
The most obvious feature of MooBot is the executable file containing the string w5q6he3dbrsgmclkiu4to18npavj702f, which will be used to generate random alphanumeric strings.
Upon execution, the binary file prints get haxored! to the console, spawns processes with random names and wipes out the executable file.
As a variant, MooBot inherits Mirai’s most significant feature – a data section with embedded default login credentials and botnet configuration – but instead of using Mirai’s encryption key, 0xDEADBEEF, MooBot encrypts its data with 0x22.
After decoding its C2 server vpn.komaru[.]today from configuration, MooBot will send out a message to inform the C2 server that a new MooBot is online. The message starts with the hardcoded magic value 0x336699.
At the time of our analysis, the C2 server was offline. According to the code analysis, MooBot will also send heartbeat messages to the C2 server and parse commands from C2 to start a DDoS attack on a specific IP address and port number.
The vulnerabilities mentioned above have low attack complexity but critical security impact that can lead to remote code execution. Once the attacker gains control in this manner, they could take advantage by including the newly compromised devices into their botnet to conduct further attacks such as DDoS.
Therefore, we strongly recommend applying patches and upgrades when possible.
Palo Alto Networks customers receive protections from the vulnerability and malware through the following products and services:
- Next-Generation Firewalls with a Threat Prevention security subscription can block the attacks with Best Practices via Threat Prevention signatures 38600, 92960, 92959 and 92533.
- WildFire can stop the malware with static signature detections.
- The Palo Alto Networks IoT security platform can leverage network traffic information to identify the vendor, model and firmware version of a device and identify specific devices that are vulnerable to the aforementioned CVEs.
- Advanced URL Filtering and DNS Security are able to block the C2 domain and malware hosting URLs.
- In addition, IoT Security has an inbuilt machine learning-based anomaly detection that can alert the customer if a device exhibits non-typical behavior, such as a sudden appearance of traffic from a new source, an unusually high number of connections or an inexplicable surge of certain attributes typically appearing in IoT application payloads.
Indicators of Compromise
Shell Script Downloader
Table 3. Shell script downloader.
Table 4. MooBot samples.
New Mirai Variant Targeting Network Security Devices - Unit 42, Palo Alto Networks
Network Attack Trends: Internet of Threats (November 2020-January 2021) - Unit 42, Palo Alto Networks
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